In the context that one major purpose of a staging system is to establish prognosis, attention has focused on the value of including weight (ie, body mass index [BMI]), dyspnea, and exercise capacity (ie, the 6-minute walk distance), with FEV 1 in staging COPD. 19 Indeed, the resultant index, called BODE (for BMI, obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) has been shown to better predict survival in COPD than FEV 1 alone. BODE scores of 0 to 10 (most impaired) are stratified into 4 quartiles, which discriminate mortality risk better than FEV 1 alone. Other multifactorial prognostic systems (eg, ADO [for age, dyspnea, and obstruction] and DOSE [for dyspnea, obstruction, smoking, and exercise capacity]) have also been proposed. 20,21
Q. what is "pulmonary edema" and what are the risks? my Dr. told me I'm in a risk group for pulmonary edema, he tried to explain what it is but i didn't understand fully...if someone may give me a brief explanation- I'll appreciate it! A. pulmonary edema occurs when, lets say, your heart left ventricle stops working properly and your right ventricle works fine. that means your lungs getting lets presume- 1 liter of blood -but your left ventricle can pump out of it only 990 ml. that means you have high blood pressure in your lungs and fluid comes out of blood vessels and fills your lungs, making it harder and harder breathing.
Genetics play a role in the development of COPD.  It is more common among relatives of those with COPD who smoke than unrelated smokers.  Currently, the only clearly inherited risk factor is alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (AAT).  This risk is particularly high if someone deficient in alpha 1-antitrypsin also smokes.  It is responsible for about 1–5% of cases   and the condition is present in about 3–4 in 10,000 people.  Other genetic factors are being investigated,  of which there are likely to be many.