People who experience a sudden hearing loss (SSNHL) are often treated with systemic steroids, which are taken orally. Studies however show that people with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) who do not respond to this treatment can benefit from intratympanic steroid injections. Studies carried out at universities in USA and Thailand show intratympanic steroid injections to be very effective and that the treatment does not have any side-effects.
Dr. David Haynes from Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, USA, carried out the study of 40 people who had experienced sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Overall, 40% showed some kind of improvement when treated with intratympanic steroid injections.
Several risk factors have been associated with the development of DILI [ 18 ]. In general, adults are at higher risk for DILI than children (with the notable exception of DILI from valproic acid, which is more common in children). Women may be more susceptible to DILI than men, which may in part be due to their generally smaller size [ 9 ]. Alcohol abuse and malnutrition predispose to DILI in some cases, as is seen with acetaminophen toxicity. (See "Acetaminophen (paracetamol) poisoning in adults: Pathophysiology, presentation, and diagnosis", section on 'Clinical factors influencing toxicity' .)