Steroid binding affinity

It is unclear whether anabolic steroids act on skeletal muscle via the androgen receptor (AR) in this tissue, or whether there is a separate anabolic receptor. When several anabolic steroids were tested as competitors for the binding of [3H]methyltrienolone (MT; 17 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-methyl-4,9,11-estratrien-3-one) to the AR in rat and rabbit skeletal muscle and rat prostate, respectively, MT itself was the most efficient competitor. 1 alpha-Methyl-5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (1 alpha-methyl-DHT; mesterolone) bound most avidly to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) [relative binding affinity (RBA) about 4 times that of DHT]. Some anabolic-androgenic steroids bound strongly to the AR in skeletal muscle and prostate [ RBAs relative to that of MT: MT greater than 19-nortestosterone ( NorT ; nandrolone) greater than methenolone (17 beta-hydroxy-1-methyl-5 alpha-androst-1-en-3-one) greater than testosterone (T) greater than 1 alpha-methyl-DHT]. In other cases, AR binding was weak (RBA values less than ): stanozolol (17 alpha-methyl-5 alpha- androstano [3,2-c]pyrazol-17 beta-ol), methanedienone (17 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-methyl-1,4-androstadien-3-one), and fluoxymesterolone (9 alpha-fluoro-11 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-methyl-T). Other compounds had RBAs too low to be determined (. oxymetholone (17 beta-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylene-17 alpha-methyl-5 alpha-androstan-3-one) and ethylestrenol (17 alpha-ethyl-4- estren -17 beta-ol). The competition pattern was similar in muscle and prostate, except for a higher RBA of DHT in the prostate. The low RBA of DHT in muscle was probably due to the previously reported rapid reduction of its 3-keto function to metabolites, which did not bind to the AR [5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol and its 3 beta-isomer (3 alpha- and 3 beta-adiol, respectively)]. Some anabolic-androgenic steroids (only a few synthetic) bound to SHBG (1 alpha-methyl-DHT much greater than DHT greater than T greater than 3 beta-adiol greater than 3 alpha-adiol = 17 alpha-methyl-T greater than methenolone greater than methanedienone greater than stanozolol). The ratio of the RBA in rat muscle to that in the prostate (an estimate of the myotrophic potency of the compounds) was close to unity, varying only between about and in most cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Some bodybuilders and athletes use trenbolone for its muscle-building and otherwise performance-enhancing effects. [ citation needed ] Such use is illegal in the United States and many other countries. The DEA classifies trenbolone as a Schedule III controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act . [14] Trenbolone is classified as a Schedule 4 drug in Canada [15] and a class C drug with no penalty for personal use or possession in the United Kingdom . [16] Use or possession of steroids without a prescription is a crime in Australia . [17] The infamous "duchess" cocktail administered to Russian athletes at the Sochi Winter Olympics consisted of oxandrolone , metenolone , and trenbolone. [18]

In the womb the human fetus has a low level of SHBG allowing increased activity of sex hormones. After birth, the SHBG level rises and remains at a high level throughout childhood. At puberty the SHBG level halves in girls and goes down to a quarter in boys. [5] The change at puberty is triggered by growth hormone , and its pulsatility differs in boys and girls. In pregnant women in the last two thirds of pregnancy the SHBG level escalates to five to ten times the usual level for a woman. A hypothesis is that this protects against the effect of hormone produced by the fetus. [5]

The relative binding affinity of 35 steroids for the glucocorticoid receptor was determined in experiments in which the competition of various unlabeled steroids with either [6,7-3H]dexamethasone or [1,2-3H]hydrocortisone for the cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor of cultured human keratinocytes was measured. The data obtained were correlated with steroid lipophilicity, measured as the partition coefficient of the steroid between 1-octanol and pH aqueous buffer. The introduction of various substituents on the steroid molecule induced changes in the binding affinity and was associated in some cases with concomitant changes in steroid lipophilicity. The substitution by a 17 alpha-OH or 21-OH group leads in all cases to a decrease in steroid lipophilicity and to an increase in affinity. In contrast, 17 alpha-OAc and especially 21-OAc substitution on hydrocortisone and betamethasone causes a decrease in the steroid affinity for the receptor and an increase in steroid lipophilicity. The elongation of the ester chain from acetate to valerate in both position C-17 and C-21 leads to the increase in both the binding affinity for the receptor and the lipophilicity of steroids. However, all 21-esters showed lower binding affinity than the parent alcohol. The binding affinity of the highly lipophilic 17 alpha, 21-diester was found to be lower than that of the 17 alpha-ester but higher than that of the 21-ester or of the parent alcohol. Only in the series of 17 alpha- and 21-esters is there a correlation between the binding affinity of steroids for the glucocorticoid receptor and their lipophilicity.

Steroid binding affinity

steroid binding affinity

The relative binding affinity of 35 steroids for the glucocorticoid receptor was determined in experiments in which the competition of various unlabeled steroids with either [6,7-3H]dexamethasone or [1,2-3H]hydrocortisone for the cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor of cultured human keratinocytes was measured. The data obtained were correlated with steroid lipophilicity, measured as the partition coefficient of the steroid between 1-octanol and pH aqueous buffer. The introduction of various substituents on the steroid molecule induced changes in the binding affinity and was associated in some cases with concomitant changes in steroid lipophilicity. The substitution by a 17 alpha-OH or 21-OH group leads in all cases to a decrease in steroid lipophilicity and to an increase in affinity. In contrast, 17 alpha-OAc and especially 21-OAc substitution on hydrocortisone and betamethasone causes a decrease in the steroid affinity for the receptor and an increase in steroid lipophilicity. The elongation of the ester chain from acetate to valerate in both position C-17 and C-21 leads to the increase in both the binding affinity for the receptor and the lipophilicity of steroids. However, all 21-esters showed lower binding affinity than the parent alcohol. The binding affinity of the highly lipophilic 17 alpha, 21-diester was found to be lower than that of the 17 alpha-ester but higher than that of the 21-ester or of the parent alcohol. Only in the series of 17 alpha- and 21-esters is there a correlation between the binding affinity of steroids for the glucocorticoid receptor and their lipophilicity.

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