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On June 22, 1941 Germany invaded the Soviet Union in a massive surprise attack. Despite initial victories and deep penetration by the Germans, the ponderous Soviet juggernaut did not collapse and its people did not break or fracture. They fought back and with aid from the British and Americans, along with expanding industrial capacity and sheer manpower, the USSR became a major threat to the Reich. The Eastern Front was seen as a meat grinder as the two powers threw men and machines into the fight. Partisan armies rose up from villages behind German lines and harried troops and logistics. When the dust settled Germany was split, with the East occupied by Russian soldiers.