CONDITIONS OF USE: The information in this database is intended to supplement, not substitute for, the expertise and judgment of healthcare professionals. The information is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, drug interactions or adverse effects, nor should it be construed to indicate that use of a particular drug is safe, appropriate or effective for you or anyone else. A healthcare professional should be consulted before taking any drug, changing any diet or commencing or discontinuing any course of treatment.
National Jewish Medical and Research Center: "Inhaled Medication with a Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI)."
Asthma Society of Canada: "How to Use Your Inhaler."
Science Daily: "New Asthma Inhaler Propellant Effective, But Costlier."
American College of Chest Physicians: "Using Your MDI-Closed Mouth Technique, Patient Education Guide."
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI): "Cumulative effects of formoterol administered by a dry powder inhaler;" "Inhalers;" and "Anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled steroids delivered by HFA-MDI vs delivery by dry powder inhaler."
News release, Merck.
Boehringer Ingelheim: "US FDA Expands Approval of Tiotropium Respimat® for Maintenance Treatment of Asthma in Children."
FDA. Prescribing Information: Spiriva Respimat.
Two 4-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were conducted in 163 pediatric subjects aged from birth to 48 months with symptoms of bronchospasm associated with obstructive airway disease (presenting symptoms included: wheeze, cough, dyspnea , or chest tightness). VENTOLIN HFA or placebo HFA was delivered with either an AeroChamber Plus® Valved Holding Chamber or an Optichamber® Valved Holding Chamber with mask 3 times daily. In one trial, VENTOLIN HFA 90 mcg (n = 26), VENTOLIN HFA 180 mcg (n = 25), and placebo HFA (n = 26) were administered to children aged between 24 and 48 months. In the second trial, VENTOLIN HFA 90 mcg (n = 29), VENTOLIN HFA 180 mcg (n = 29), and placebo HFA (n = 28) were administered to children aged between birth and 24 months. Over the 4-week treatment period, there were no treatment differences in asthma symptom scores between the groups receiving VENTOLIN HFA 90 mcg, VENTOLIN HFA 180 mcg, and placebo in either trial.