Cardiovascular effects of PACAP and PACAP(6â38) in the RVLM of normotensive and hypertensive rats. A and B: changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP; i), HR (ii), and percentage of sSNA (iii) before and after the administration of PACAP (A) or PACAP(6â38) (B). Arrows indicate times of drug infusion. âPBSâ indicates the period after the bilateral RVLM microinjection of PBS; âPACAPâ and âPACAP(6â38)â indicate the periods after the bilateral RVLM microinjection of PACAP or PACAP(6â38), respectively. C: comparison of maximum MAP (i), HR (ii), and percentage of sSNA responses (iii) after PACAP or PACAP(6â38). *P < ; **P < ; ***P < .
Poverty is a good indicator of the rate of infectious diarrhea in a population. This association does not stem from poverty itself, but rather from the conditions under which impoverished people live. The absence of certain resources compromises the ability of the poor to defend themselves against infectious diarrhea. "Poverty is associated with poor housing, crowding, dirt floors, lack of access to clean water or to sanitary disposal of fecal waste ( sanitation ), cohabitation with domestic animals that may carry human pathogens, and a lack of refrigerated storage for food, all of which increase the frequency of diarrhea... Poverty also restricts the ability to provide age-appropriate, nutritionally balanced diets or to modify diets when diarrhea develops so as to mitigate and repair nutrient losses. The impact is exacerbated by the lack of adequate, available, and affordable medical care."